The Other Treaties

  • The Treaty of Saint-Germain
    On September 10 representatives of the now tiny republic of Austria signed the Treaty of Saint-Germain, just outside Paris. The treaty legalised the disappearance of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Austria recognised the independence of Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, and Hungary. The Austrian army was limited to 30,000 men, and Austria agreed to pay economic reparations to Allied nations that had been victims of Austro-Hungarian aggression. Austria was forbidden to unite with Germany, as many people of both countries had envisioned.
  • The Treaty of Neuilly
    On November 27, Bulgaria signed a treaty with the Allies at Neuilly, another suburb of Paris. Bulgaria recognised the independence of Yugoslavia, and agreed to cede territory to Yugoslavia, Romania, and Greece. Bulgaria's army was restricted, and the country was forced to pay reparations to its Allied neighbours.
  • The Treaty of Trianon
    Hungary signed the Treaty of Trianon at Versailles on 4 June, 1920, which reduced the country in area from 283,000 sq. km (109,000 sq. mi) to less than 93,000 sq. km (36,000 sq. mi). The Hungarian army was limited to 35,000 troops, and reparations were demanded, although the amount was unspecified.
  • The Treaty of Sèvres
    Treaty of Sèvres, The last of the treaties that ended World War I was negotiated between the Allied powers and the Ottoman Empire. Because of a number of complications, the peace settlement with Turkey was long delayed. It was finally signed at Sevres, another suburb of Paris, on 10 August, 1920 but never ratified by the Turkish government.
  • The Treaty of Lausanne
    By the Treaty of Lausanne signed on 24 July, 1923, Turkey recognised the independence of the Arab Kingdom of Hejaz, the French mandate over Syria, and the British mandates over Palestine and Mesopotamia. Turkey also recognised Greek and Italian occupation of most of its former Aegean islands and agreed to demilitarise the straits, retaining the right to close them in time of war. Turkey was to pay no reparations. It was a fair and responsible treaty that left Turkey better off than it had been before the war, because all of the territories lost were really non-Turkish and had been perpetual military and economic problems for the old empire.

The peace treaties that emerged from the conferences at Versailles, Saint-Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, and Sèvres were on the whole inadequately enforced by the victorious powers, leading to the resurgence of militarism and aggressive nationalism in Germany and to social disorder throughout much of Europe.

When the days of rejoicing are over,
When the flags are stowed safely away,
They will dream of another wild 'War to End Wars'
And another wild Armistice day.

But the boys who were killed in the trenches,
Who fought with no rage and no rant,
We left them stretched out on their pallets of mud
Low down with the worm and the ant.